Simply Explained

Cryptography

Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. It uses ciphers to transform plain text into disguised text.

Types of ciphers

  1. Caesar cipher

This method uses alphabets shifted to the left by one alphabet. eg. hello => ifmmp

     2. Atbash cipher

This method uses reverse alphabetical order to cipher plain text. eg. hello => svppm

     3. Polybius square

It uses a table to convert letters to numbers. eg. Ruksar => 245452341124

     4. Rail Fence cipher

It writes plain text downwards and diagonally on rails of an imaginary fence. eg. Hello world => Horel ollwd

Cryptographic hashing is used to convert plain text into hash-code which is a one-way transformation. There is no way to decipher a hashed text.

Hash functions differ by output length and method of transformation.

Even the slightest change in the input results in a completely different output. This is known as the avalanche effect.  

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