Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. It uses ciphers to transform plain text into disguised text.
Types of ciphers
- Caesar cipher
This method uses alphabets shifted to the left by one alphabet. eg. hello => ifmmp
2. Atbash cipher
This method uses reverse alphabetical order to cipher plain text. eg. hello => svppm
3. Polybius square
It uses a table to convert letters to numbers. eg. Ruksar => 245452341124
4. Rail Fence cipher
It writes plain text downwards and diagonally on rails of an imaginary fence. eg. Hello world => Horel ollwd
Cryptographic hashing is used to convert plain text into hash-code which is a one-way transformation. There is no way to decipher a hashed text.
Hash functions differ by output length and method of transformation.
Even the slightest change in the input results in a completely different output. This is known as the avalanche effect.